Annex A - Group Research Proposal

Group Project Proposal (Engineering)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE

INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE

Names: Ernest Tan Yuan Jun, Miguel Reyes


Class: S2-03

Group Reference: A / B / C / D / E / F / G / H  / J /  K  / L /  M  

A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

[  X  ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research
          e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households  

  1. Type & Category

Type of research: _______6________  (Write down one number from 1 to 6)

Category  –  __________12___________ (Write down one number from 7 to 20)

Sub-category –  _________d_________ (Write down the sub-heading alphabet)  


Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:
Find out the most energy/material-efficient drawbridge for different scenarios.
_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________


C.    Write down your research title:
Investigation on the suitability of different bridge types in different situations

D.   (a) Problem being addressed

Certain situations calls for certain movable bridges for maximum efficiency. However, there are many different types of bridges, and no guide to which is best for which situation.

     (b) Goals

Find out which movable bridges(Vertical lift, Bascule and Rolling Bascule) are the most ideal for certain situations via comparing results of stress-testing a model version of all three types.
(c) Specify Requirements
In particular, we wanted to find out which bridge was best
  1. in the cost of material used to build it by calculating materials needed
  2. in energy efficiency via calculating energy used when bridge is in operation

(d) Choice and rationale for choice

Suggested factors for consideration:
Table 4: List of factors for consideration in the design of the prototype



Factors
Critical thinking questions
Mass difference
The material(cardboard) we are using has a different mass from concrete and metal, the usual bridge materials. How will this cause the readings to differ?
Time
Will it take a long time to build?
Strength
Will the model be able to withstand the forces applied during testing?
Safety
Will the model be safe to use?

Ranking matrix
Table 1: The ranking matrix for factors affecting the choice
Decision making grid

Criteria
Mass difference
Strength
Time
Safety
Row
Total:
Normalised
Value:
Mass differnce
N/a
1
1
0
2
2/20 = 0.1
Strength
1
N/a
1
0
2
2/20=0.1
Time
1
2
N/a
1
4
4/20 = 0.2
Safety
4
4
4
N/a
12
12/20 = 0.6
Column total:
20

E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)
(a) Equipment list:
-     Cardboard
-     Penknife
-     Cutting Mat
-     Glue
-     Binder clips
-     Batteries
-     Motor
-     Wiring
-     Multimeter
(b) Diagrams
20160117_Ernest_01.jpg
Fig. 1.1
20160124234005.jpg
Figure 1.2           
Figure 1.3             
20160124234527.jpg
Figure 1.4              

(c) Procedures for building: Detail all procedures for construction of prototype

Building the base:
  1. Glue cardboard pieces(found in Fig 1.2) together according to Figure 1.1
           a. The 30cm by 10cm piece will be the bottom.  
           b. To form a cube, assemble the other cardboard pieces according to figure 1.3.
Form two cubes(one on each side of the 30cm by 10cm piece)
           c. Attach wiring, battery and motor according to figure 1.4
Attach Motor on top of the cube near the edge of where the bridge will be.
Attach Battery at the side.
Connect both Motor and Battery with wiring.
Repeat on other side with the other cube structure.
Building bridges:
  1. Screen Shot 2016-01-25 at 11.07.12 am.pngBridge 1 (Rolling Bascule Bridge)
    One long ledge fixed to one edge of the abutment rotating about an axis on the abutment itself
  2. Bridge 2 (Bascule Bridge)
    Screen Shot 2016-01-25 at 11.07.18 am.pngTwo shorter ledges each attached to the other abutment rotating on an opposite axis.
  3. Bridge 3(Vertical Lift Bridge)
         A long ledge lifted and lowered along a tower

          

Attaching wires:

(d) Procedures for testing: Detail all procedures for testing of prototype
  1. Attach Bridge 1 to the base
  2. Lift and lower Bridge 1 (1 cycle).
  3. Record energy usage.
  4. Repeat Steps 2 and 3 until 3 cycles done in total.
  5. Repeat steps 1-4 Bridges 2 and 3

         
(e) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.



Risk:
Assessment
Management
Electrical shocks may occur from the wiring
High
Avoid touching the exposed part of the wires
Do not turn on electricity while still holding wires
Binder clips may pinch
Low
Try to minimize close contact with the clamping edge
Penknife needed for cutting cardboard is sharp and may cut
High
Cut in direction away from self
Walk with penknife’s sharp edge facing the floor
If dropped, do not try to catch.




Table 3: Risk Assessment and Management table

(f) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer engineering goals

1.    Tabulate the energy needed for usage of bridge. Repeat for materials
2.    Compare which bridge requires less energy/material
3.    From there, we can fulfill our aim by comparing the data.

F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.

(a) Books
Brown, D. J. (2005). Bridges: Three thousand years of defying nature. Richmond Hill, Ont.: Firefly Books.
(b) Journals
Wallner, M., & Pircher, M. (2007). Kinematics of Movable Bridges. J. Bridge Eng. Journal of Bridge Engineering, 12(2), 147-153.
(c) Websites
Wikipedia list of bridges. (2015, November 3). Retrieved January 13, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moveable_bridge

How to calculate electrical energy:
Wikipedia's guide to calculating electrical power. (n.d.). Retrieved January 21, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_power

HowStuffWorks video on drawbridges. (n.d.). Retrieved January 21, 2016, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/28-how-drawbridges-work-video.htm

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